Monroe County was created on November 2, 1829, by the Territorial Legislature from portions of Arkansas and Phillips counties and named for James Monroe, fifth President of the United States and author of the "Monroe Doctrine." Clarendon is the County Seat. The landscape is rich, flat, delta farmland. The economy is agriculture, soybeans, cotton, rice and wheat with some small manufacturing. Interstate 40 passes through the county. Lake Greenlee, a rectangular lake enclosed by a four-sided levee, Green and East lakes, backwater lakes, and Maddox Bay offer excellent fishing. The Cache River runs through the county with Dagmar Wildlife Management Area providing hunting for several species. In the southwestern part of the county, the scenic White River runs through the White River National Wildlife Management Area and provides great boating and fishing and is home to virtually every wild bird and animal found in the southern United States. Clarendon, known until 1837 as Mouth-of-the-Cache or White River Crossing, has 22 structures listed in the National Historical Register. The town square has been used several times as a movie set. The Courthouse, which holds lots of early history dating back to 1829, was a sanctuary for hundreds of persons who sough refuge in the upper floors while awaiting rescue by boats. After the flood, church services and community activities were held in the courthouse while community flood damage was repaired. In spite of the flood, the original oak furniture remains in the elegant courtroom that has a dome skylight of richly colored stained glass.